If you have colon cancer, altering your diet can help ease symptoms, keep your body weight within a healthy range, and accelerate your recovery. Knowing what to eat -- and what to avoid -- when you have colon cancer is a must.
Colon Cancer Nutrition Guidelines
Whether you have colon cancer, are receiving cancer treatment, or simply want to reduce your risk of developing colon cancer, what you eat is important. MedlinePlus, Cleveland Clinic, and Indiana University Health Goshen Center for Cancer Care provide recommendations for people with colon cancer, which applies to colon cancer prevention:
- Get 25 to 30 grams of fiber each day.
- Eat three whole-grain foods daily.
- Eat five to nine servings of fruits and veggies daily -- especially broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, dark leafy greens, peppers, carrots, and oranges.
- Eat lentils and beans at least three times weekly.
- Choose protein-rich eggs, fish, nuts, and soy products.
- Get plenty of calcium and vitamin D from dairy foods like low-fat milk and yogurt.
- Eat omega-3 rich foods like fatty fish, walnuts, and flaxseed oil.
- Drink plenty of water and green tea daily.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
Foods to Avoid
Based on recommendations from MedlinePlus, Cleveland Clinic, and Indian University Health Goshen Center for Cancer Care, you should avoid the following when you have, or want to reduce your risk of developing, colon cancer:
- Excess alcohol
- Red meat
- Charbroiled meats
- Processed meats
- Highly salted meats
- Greasy foods
- Fried foods
- Spicy foods
Considerations During Cancer Treatment
If you're experiencing side effects during colon cancer treatment, such as nausea and diarrhea, you may have to alter your diet to ease symptoms and maintain your weight. If you're feeling nauseated or are vomiting, stay away from greasy, fried, and spicy foods, drink plenty of fluids, and eat five or six small meals daily instead of fewer big meals, suggests Cleveland Clinic. If you're having problems with diarrhea, focus on foods rich in soluble fiber - like bananas, oatmeal, applesauce, citrus fruits, or soluble fiber-rich supplements, Cleveland Clinic recommends.
What About Supplements?
To ensure you're getting proper nutrients and maintaining a healthy weight, your doctor might recommend certain dietary supplements -- like multivitamin, omega-3, fiber, probiotic, or protein supplements. He might also suggest a high-calorie nutrition shake if you're struggling with unwanted weight loss or malnutrition during cancer treatment.
Sample Meal Plans
The number of calories you should eat daily depends on your gender, size, age, and activity level. It's important to avoid losing weight during cancer treatment (unless your doctor recommends it) to maximize your recovery. A sample meal plan (you may have to alter it if you're experiencing nausea and diarrhea from treatment) includes the following:
- Oatmeal made with soy or almond milk topped with sliced almonds, flax seeds, and bananas
- Scrambled eggs
- Omelet made with spinach, black beans, and feta cheese
- Whole grain toast topped with tub butter spread
- Orange slices
- Plain nonfat Greek yogurt with strawberries and walnuts
- Low-fat cottage cheese topped with blueberries and flax seeds
- Leafy greens topped with grilled chicken breast, tomatoes, peppers, shredded cheese, and Italian salad dressing
- Whole grain pita bread with hummus
- Green tea
- Burrito made with leafy greens, peppers, grilled chicken breast or tofu, black beans, shredded cheese, and mild salsa on a whole-grain tortilla
- Green tea
- Turkey burger on a whole-grain bun topped with tomatoes, leafy greens, and reduced-fat cheese
- Fresh cucumbers, tomatoes, and carrot sticks
- Green tea
- Tuna salad sandwich on whole-grain bread with tomatoes and leafy greens
- Cold three bean salad
- Green tea
- Smoothie made with soy milk or almond milk, protein powder, fruit, and flax seeds
- Grilled salmon
- Whole grain couscous
- Brussels sprouts or steamed broccoli
- Grilled chicken breast or tofu
- Asparagus or broccoli
Eating a nutrient-dense diet packed with lean protein, fish, healthy fats, nuts, seeds, fruits, veggies, whole grains, legumes, dairy, and soy foods is beneficial when you have colon cancer. You may need to alter your diet if you're experiencing side effects during treatment. Ask your doctor if adding dietary supplements is right for you.